In ‘The Race of the Fleeing Man’, Julius Evola mentioned how « the modification of the general atmosphere… seems to provoke a veritable alteration of the psychic structure. » He did not elaborate on these modifications. In another essay from ‘L’Arco e la Clava’, ‘America Negrizzata’ – ‘Negrified America’ – Evola expands on this notion, though from a different perspective, and allows the discerning reader to draw the necessary conclusions. The dissonances between the races of the body, the soul and the spirit directly contribute to the lack of any « inner form », and thus are responsible, to a certain degree, for the proliferation of this « race of the fleeing man ».
The regressive effects of the psychic modification caused by the kind of racial promiscuity exemplified by the United States of America are dealt with in this prescient article. Yet Evola, while foreseeing the eventual ‘Americanization’ of Europe, did not seem to consider that Europe would one day undergo the same process of mass immigration and miscegenation as the United States. Due to the deleterious effects of modern education, mass media and public policy, the considerations developed by Evola in ‘Negrified America’ are, to a large extent, just as applicable to contemporary Europe.
We have recently been informed by the newspapers that, according to certain calculations, half of the population of Manhattan in New York will be of the Black race by 1970, and that, of the five districts which constitute the city of New York, 28% of the residents will be coloured people. Similar developments have also been established for other cities and regions of the United States. We are thus witnessing a negrification, an interbreeding and a decline of the White race in the face of more prolific inferior races.
Naturally, from the democratic point of view, there is no harm in all this, on the contrary. The zeal and intransigence of those American agitators of “racial integration” is well known and can but only further reinforce this phenomenon. Moreover, not only are these last not content with advocating total racial promiscuity and demanding that Negroes have free access to all public and political office (so much so that we may one day expect to see a Black president of the United States); but also they see no harm in the fact that Blacks mix their blood with that of people of their own White race. A typical example of this propaganda is the drama ‘Roots’ (implying the roots of racial “prejudice”) [Note A], which Italian radio has seen fit to foist upon us on a number of occasions.
We know that the “integrationists” who draw these conclusions from the dogma of egalitarian democracy, as logical and as aberrant as they are, are partisans of a regime of genuine imposition, even though they speak of “freedom” about anything and everything. (Note 1) Opposing them still, especially in the Southern states, are certain groups who are fighting against the advancement of the Black race and the “negrification” of their country. But these groups are unaware of the extent of the phenomenon, of which they only see the most material and most tangible aspects; they do not see to what extent America is not only “negrified” on the demographic and racial plane, but also – and especially – on the plane of culture, civilization, of behaviour, of taste, even where interbreeding with Negro blood properly speaking is not present.
The United States of America has been compared, with good reason, to a melting-pot. America is, in fact, one of those cases where, from an extremely heterogeneous raw material emerges a type of man whose characteristics are, by and large, uniform and constant. Men of the most diverse peoples thus receive, by settling in America, the same imprint. It is almost always the case that, after two generations, they have lost their original characteristics and reproduce a fairly unitary type, as far as the mentality, sensitivity and modes of behaviour are concerned: to wit, the American type.
However, in this precise case, theories such as those formulated by Frobenius and Spengler – that there is a close relationship between the forms of a civilization and a kind of “soul” linked to the natural environment, the “scenery” and to the original population – do not seem relevant. If this were the case, in America, the element composed of American Indians, the Redskins, ought to have played an important role. The Redskins were a proud race, possessed style, dignity, sensitivity and religiosity; it is not without reason that a Traditionalist author, F. Schuon, has spoken of the presence in them of something “aquiline and solar”. And we do not hesitate to affirm that had their spirit marked, under its best aspects and on an adequate level, the mix of material in the “American melting-pot”, the level of American civilization would probably have been higher. (Note 2)
However, setting aside the Puritan and Protestant element (itself under the effect of negative, judaizing influences due to the fetishistic insistence on the Old Testament), it would seem that it is the Black element, with its primitivism, that sets the tone of many of the decisive traits of the American mentality. One first thing is, in itself, characteristic: when one speaks of folklore in America, it is always the Blacks who spring to mind, as though they were the first inhabitants of the country. So much so that, in America, the famous ‘Porgy and Bess’, by the Jewish musician Gershwin, is considered a classic work inspired by “American folklore”, a work which deals only with Negroes. The author furthermore declared that, in order to write his work, he had to immerse himself for a time in the atmosphere of Black Americans.
The phenomenon represented by easy-listening music and dance is even more conspicuous. We cannot say that Fitzgerald is wrong when he notes that, under one of its principle aspects, American civilization can be called a jazz civilization, that is, of a music and dance of black or negrified origin. [Note B] In this domain, very singular “elective affinities” have brought America, through a process of regression and of return to the primitive, to inspire itself precisely from the Negroes, as though, in its search for frenetic rhythms and forms as a possible justifiable compensation for the soulless nature of mechanic and material modern civilization, numerous European sources could not have offered something much better – we have elsewhere referred to the dance rhythms of South-Eastern Europe, which really have something Dionysiac about them. But America has made its choice, on the basis of the Negroes and Afro-Cuban rhythms, and the infection, from there on, has steadily spread to many other countries. [Note C]
The psychoanalyst C. G. Jung has already remarked on the Negro element of the American psyche. Some of his observations deserve to be reproduced here.
“Another thing that struck me [in the American] was the great influence of the Negro, a psychological influence naturally, not due to the mixing of blood. The emotional way an American expresses himself, especially the way he laughs, can best be studied in the illustrated supplements of the American papers; the inimitable Teddy Roosevelt laugh is found in its primordial form in the American Negro. The peculiar walk with loose joints, or the swinging of the hips so frequently observed in Americans, also comes from the Negro. (Note 3) American music draws its main inspiration from the Negro, and so does the dance. The expression of religious feeling, the revival meetings, the Holy Rollers and other abnormalities are strongly influenced by the Negro. The vivacity of the average American, which shows itself not only at baseball games but quite particularly in his extraordinary love of talking – the ceaseless gabble of American papers is an eloquent example of this – is scarcely to be derived from his Germanic forefathers, but is far more like the chattering of a Negro village. The almost total lack of privacy and the all-devouring mass sociability remind one of primitive life in open huts, where there is complete identity with all members of the tribe.” [Note D]
Continuing that kind of observation, Jung ended up wondering whether the inhabitants of the New World could still be considered Europeans. But his remarks must be extended further.
The brutality which is one of the obvious traits of the American can be said to bear a Negro stamp. In those blessed days of what Eisenhower did not hesitate to call the “Crusade in Europe”, and at the beginning of the American occupation, the typical forms of this brutality were to be seen, and it was even noticed that, in this domain, the “White” American outdid his Black comrade-in-arms, with whom he often shared, in other respects, the same infantilism.
Generally speaking, the taste for brutality now seems to form part of the American mentality. It is true that the most brutal sport, boxing, comes from England, but then it is also true that it was in the United States that it has undergone the most aberrant developments, to the point of becoming the object of a genuinely collective fanaticism, one which has rapidly spread to other peoples. As to the tendency to come to blows in the most savage fashion, it is enough to bear in mind that, in a great deal of American films and in much of the popular American pulp literature, fisticuffs are a common occurrence because they evidently fulfill the tastes of American viewers and readers, for whom brutality seems to be the mark of true virility. The American nation-guide, more than any other nation, has long since rid itself, among other quaint European relics, of that manner of settling one’s differences de facto, following rigorous procedures, without having recourse to the brute, primitive force of the hand and the fist, which once could have corresponded to the traditional duel. We can but underline the abyss between this American trait and what once was the ideal of behaviour of the English gentleman, even though the English formed part of the original White population of the United States.
Modern Western man, for the most part a regressive human type, can be compared, in various respects, to a crustacean: he is all the “harder” in his external behaviour as man of action, as unscrupulous entrepreneur, as organizer and so on, as he is “soft” and inconsistent on the plane of interiority. This is all the truer of the American, insofar as he embodies the most deviant form of the Western type in the extreme. We encounter here another affinity with the Negro. A bland sentimentalism, a banal pathos, notably in love relationships, draws the American closer to the Negro than to the truly civilized European. On that topic, the observer may easily draw the irrefutable evidence from many typical American novels, songs, cinema, and from contemporary American private life.
That American eroticism is as pandemic as it is technically primitive is something also – and especially – deplored by young American women and girls. This brings us back to the Black races, in which the part, sometimes obsessive, played from the beginning by eroticism and sexuality has combined precisely with primitivism; these races, unlike the Orientals, or the Western world of Antiquity, or other peoples, have never known an ars amatoria worthy of the name. The much-vaunted sexual exploits of the Negroes have, in reality, but a grossly quantitative and priapic character.
Another typical example of American primitivism concerns the idea of “greatness”. Werner Sombart saw this perfectly, saying: “They mistake bigness for greatness,” that is, they take material greatness for true greatness, spiritual greatness. [Note E] Yet this is not a trait proper to all the non-European or coloured peoples in general. For instance, an authentic Arab of old stock, a Redskin, an Oriental, would not be too impressed by all that is great on the surface, in a material, quantitative manner, including the greatness linked to machines, to technics, to the economy (excluding the already westernized elements of those peoples). Only a really primitive and infantile race, such as the Black race, could be taken in by all that. It is thus not an exaggeration to say that the stupid pride Americans have for spectacular “greatness”, for the achievements of their civilization, itself is under the effect of the disposition of the Negro psyche.
Against this background, the oft-repeated nonsense that Americans are a “young race”, with the tacit corollary being that the future belongs to them, should be mentioned briefly. Short-sightedness can easily confuse the traits of an effective youth with those of a regressive infantilism. For that matter, it is enough to consider things from a traditional conception to invert this perspective. In spite of appearances, it is the recently-formed peoples who are to be considered as the oldest peoples, and quite possibly, as “twilight peoples”, since they have come last, precisely, and are thus further away from the origins. Moreover, this manner of seeing things finds a correspondence in the world of living organisms. (Note 4) This explains the paradoxical encounter of the presumed “young” peoples (in the sense of being the peoples who have come last) with the truly primitive races, those who have always remained outside of the greater picture; this explains the taste for the primitive, and the return to the primitive. We have already remarked on the choice made by the Americans, because of a genuine elective affinity, in favour of Negro and sub-tropical music, but the same phenomenon can be observed in other domains of contemporary culture and art. For instance, we could refer to the fairly recent cult of negritude founded in France by existentialists, intellectuals and “progressive” artists.
Another conclusion to be drawn from all this is that Europeans and the representatives of non-European higher civilizations, in turn, display the same primitive and provincial mentality in their admiration of America, when they allow themselves to be impressed by America, when they americanize themselves, stupidly and enthusiastically, thinking thus to keep up with the times, and showing a free and open mind.
The march of progress also concerns the social and cultural “integrationism” of the Negro, which is spreading in Europe and which is being favoured even in Italy, by underhand means, notably by means of imported films (where Whites and Blacks together occupy social functions: judges, policemen, lawyers, etc), and by television, with shows where Black singers and dancers are mixed with Whites, so that the public may, little by little, become accustomed to this racial promiscuity, and lose all that remains of a natural racial consciousness and all sense of distance. The collective fanaticism recently caused in Italy by that shapeless, screaming mound of flesh, Ella Fitzgerald, is a sad and revealing sign. The same could be said of the fact that the most insane exaltation of Negro “culture” and of negritude, is due to a German, Janheinz Jahn, whose book, ‘Muntu’, published by an old and respectable German publishing house (so in the country of Aryan racism!), was readily translated and published by a well-known leftist Italian publisher, Einaudi. In this unlikely, demented work, the author even goes so far as to maintain that Negro “culture” would be an excellent means with which to uplift and regenerate Western “material civilization”…
Concerning American elective affinities, we will allude to one last point. We could say that, in the United States of America, if ever there was something which seemed to offer a favourable outcome and which inspired hope, it was the phenomenon of that young generation which advocated a kind of rebellious, anarchist, anti-conformist and nihilist existentialism; what was known as the Beat Generation, the Beats, the hipsters, and so on, to which we shall return elsewhere. [Note F] However, even in this case, fraternization with Negroes, the instauration of a veritable religion of Negro jazz, exaggerated displays of promiscuity, including on the sexual level, with Negroes, have been some of the characteristics of that movement. Norman Mailer, one of the chief representatives of the Beat Generation, even established a sort of equivalence between the Negro and the human type of the movement in question; he bluntly called the latter “the White Negro”. [Note G] On that subject, Fausto Gianfranceschi cogently wrote: “Given the fascination exerted by Negro “culture”, under the form described by Mailer, it is impossible not to immediately establish an irreverent parallel with the impression produced by the message of Friedrich Nietzsche at the end of the 19th century. The starting point is the same desire to break all that is fossilized and conformist by a brutal, instant awareness of the vital and existential fact; but what degradation when, as is done nowadays with jazz and the sexual orgasm, the Negro is placed on the pedestal of the “Superman”!” (Note 5)
To save the best for last, we will conclude with the significant observation due to a particularly interesting American writer, James Burnham (in ‘The Struggle for the World’): “There is in American life a strain of callow brutality. This betrays itself no less in the lynching and gangsterism at home than in the arrogance and hooliganism of soldiers or tourists abroad. The provincialism of the American mind expresses itself in a lack of sensitivity toward other peoples and other cultures. There is in many Americans an ignorant contempt for ideas and tradition and history, a complacency with the trifles of merely material triumph. Who, listening a few hours to the American radio, could repress a shudder if he thought that the price of survival [of a non-communist society] would be the Americanization of the world?” [Note H]
This is, unfortunately, what is already happening before our eyes.
[A] J. Evola is here referring to the radio adaptation an Italian film of 1957, « Profonde sono le radici ».
See: http://www.mymovies.it/dizionario/recensione.asp?id=52402 for further details. The description of the film is as follows:
« A young black man who fought valiantly during World War II returns to his hometown in the deep south, where he is falsely accused of theft and nearly lynched. » – Ed.
(1) The imposition of “integration” is an insult to all forms of freedom, the racial factor being here but secondary. It has never been denied to a family the right to not welcome and to keep at a distance unpleasant strangers or foreigners (whatever the reasons for this antipathy may be); but the promiscuity with Negroes in public life is itself imposed – ironically – in the name of freedom, a one-way freedom. The segregationist regime, that of Apartheid, is deprecated, when it is the only reasonable one, and harms no one: everyone stays at home, among his own. There is something unheard of in what “progress” has done to the degenerate White race: the English who, only yesterday, were out-and-out racists, to the point of thinking that a different kind of humanity lived beyond the Channel, and who, in their colonies, condescendingly kept aloof from the “coloured” representatives of millennial civilizations superior to their own (in India, in China, etc), following the anti-colonialist infatuation, have, as of the moment of writing this, forced their compatriots in Rhodesia to leave the Commonwealth and have imposed sanctions against them, because the Rhodesians had not wanted to accord the blind and egalitarian right to vote to the Black population, who would only have chased them from the lands they themselves had civilized.
As to the United States, if there really did exist a sense of guilt for the treatment of the Blacks under the old system of slavery, which, according to some, inspires the “integrationists” – as if all the White blood spilt during the fratricidal Civil War (officially fought for the freedom of the Blacks) was not enough – why then would they not ask that, of the fifty states of the Union, one should be depopulated and ceded to the American Blacks, who could then govern themselves and do as they wished without bothering or contaminating anyone? That would, in fact, be the best solution.
[B] The American writer F. Scott Fitzgerald entitled one of his collections of short stories ‘Tales of the Jazz Age’. – Ed.
(2) A petty man of letters with intellectual pretentions, Salvatore Quasimodo, while bewailing the “racist” ideas exposed here, notably accuses us of contradiction; while being against the Negroes, we accord recognition to the American Indians. The idea would never occur to him that a “healthy racism” has nothing to do with the prejudice of “white skin”; it essentially consists of a hierarchy of values, according to which we say “No” to the Negroes, to all that is Negro, and to Negro contamination (the Black races being, in this hierarchy, just above the Australian aborigines, for, according to a certain racial morphology, they correspond chiefly to the type of “nocturnal” and “telluric” races, in opposition to the “diurnal” races); however, we would be no doubt willing to recognize the superiority over the “Whites of the upper classes of the Hindus, Chinese, Japanese and some Arab bloodlines, who nevertheless do not have white skin – given what the White race has become since the period of mercantile and colonial expansion. (Admittedly, Julius Evola’s judgment on the American Indians appears contradictory and must be taken with considerable reservations, less for the reasons put forth by S. Quasimodo than by a factor directly linked to the status traditionally held by women in the majority of Indian tribes. Without entering the debate as to whether Indian societies were matriarchal or simply matrilineal (dealt with in « Invisible Indians: Native Americans in Pennsylvania » by D. J. Minderhout and A. T. Frantz), we shall only point out that the civic and political rights of Indian women were so great that White American feminists – both male and female – of the nineteenth century found an almost providential inspiration therein, so to speak, for their clamouring demands. « The 1848 Seneca Falls women’s rights convention sought many of the same rights that some American Indian women already had, including the right to own property, divorce, retain custody of children, relax restrictive clothing, vote, hold political offices, serve in the ministry, practice medicine, and pursue other professions. » Moreover, « European emigrants wrote extensively, and most often with disapproval, of the greater freedom women and children enjoyed in some American Indian societies. » (D. Hightower-Langston, A to Z of American Women Leaders and Activists, 2002, p. xi)
Even but in this respect, which is absolutely fundamental, it is difficult to see how: “had their spirit [the native Americans’] marked, under its best aspects and on an adequate level, the mix of material in the “American melting-pot”, the level of American civilization would probably have been higher. » On the contrary, taking into account the gynecocratic character of contemporary American society, and the disproportionate rights accorded to Indian women traditionally, it is not extravagant to put it that the latter could well have been a conditioning – or even a determining – factor in the formation of the former. Ed.)
[C] See, for example, Chapter 23 of ‘Ride the Tiger’; ‘Modern Music and Jazz’. – Ed.
(3) To which we may add the absolutely Negro character of the movements and gestures proper to the American dancers and entertainers.
[D] This quote appears in the essay ‘Mind and Earth’ (1931), in the Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Volume 10. – Ed.
[E] This quote appears, not in the works of W. Sombart, but in ‘The American Commonwealth’ (1888) by the then British ambassador to the U.S., Viscount James Bryce. – Ed. The work may be found here: http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=697&chapter=188489&layout=html&Itemid=27.
(4) All the while referring to what we have said in the first chapter [of ‘L’Arco e la Clava’, ‘Civilizations of Time and Civilizations of Space’], we recall the opposite conception, according to which it is only the periodic return to the origins which can confer “youth.”
[F] See ‘Youth, Beats and Right-Wing Anarchists’, https://evolaasheis.wordpress.com/2016/04/14/youth-beats-and-right-wing-anarchists/.
[G] Norman Mailer’s 1957 essay, ‘The White Negro: Superficial Reflections on the Hipster’, can be read here: http://www.dissentmagazine.org/online_articles/the-white-negro-fall-1957.
(5) Naturally, this is but one aspect of Nietzsche’s philosophy. The level of disorientation prevailing in this American existentialism can be seen from the fact that, on the one hand, there is solidarity with the Negro, on the other, some feel an attraction to the transcendence of Zen, an esoteric school of the Far East.
[H] James Burnham’s 1947 work may be read online here: http://archive.org/details/struggleforworld00burn.